In the past decade, immune-based therapies such as monoclonal antibodies against tumor epitopes or immune checkpoint inhibitors have become an integral part of contemporary cancer treatment in many entities. However, a fundamental prerequisite for the success of such therapies is a sufficient trafficking of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment. This infiltration is facilitated by chemokines, a group of about 50 small proteins capable of chemotactically guiding leukocytes. Proteolytic inactivation of chemokines leading to an impaired infiltration of immune effector cells appears to be an efficient immune escape mechanism of solid cancers.The CXCR3 and CX3CR1 chemokine receptor ligands CXCL9-11 and CX3CL1, respectively, are mainly responsible for the tumor-suppressive lymphocytic infiltration into the tumor micromilieu. Their structure explains the biochemical basis of their proteolytic cleavage, while in vivo data from mouse models and patient samples shed light on the corresponding processes in cancer. The emerging roles of proteases, e.g., matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4, in chemokine inactivation define new resistance mechanisms against immunotherapies and identify attractive new targets to enhance immune intervention in cancer.
Systematik der Wissenschaftszweige 2012
- 106 Biologie